Language Note: Ke ʻOluʻolu ʻOe

A lot of things do not translate well into English from Hawaiian because languages articulate a world view. This isnʻt to say that one is better than the other, but when one is switching from Hawaiian to English or English to Hawaiian, one has to switch oneʻs world view. Iʻll give two examples.

The first example is “ke ʻoluʻolu ʻoe” which is usually translated into English as “please” and normally appears at the end of a request. Actually, the French “s’il vous plaît” is a far closer translation of “ke ʻoluʻolu ʻoe”. “Ke ʻoluʻolu ʻoe” literally means if it pleases you or if it will be your pleasure. In English, “please” still implies that the requester has some level of authority. In Hawaiian, the requested has a level of authority and their empathy is being invoked.

The second example is “hoʻomālielie i ke kaumaha” which is usually translated as condolence. In English, “condolences” or “my condolences” is an expression of oneʻs sympathy. In many Western societies, people are too often told to “move on”, “things will get better”, and “time will heal”. Ancient Hawaiians did not share that view. Hawaiian “hoʻomālielie i ke kaumaha” or “e hoʻomālielie i kou kaumaha” are not merely expressions of the speakerʻs sympathy. Itʻs an expression that the speaker understands the grief and is acknowledging that grief. In Hawaiian, it was normal to be in grief for a year and to remember death anniversaries there after. People were allowed to show grief and openly showed their grief. Hawaiians in the olden times would cut their hair, get a new tattoo, and express their grief through kanikau or funerary chants. Grief was a normal reaction and was embraced as part of the cycle of life. In the expression “e hoʻomālielie i kou kaumaha” we find that understanding. Mālielie means to be soothed, comforted or calmed. Kaumaha means sorrow or grief. “E hoʻomālielie i kou kaumaha” therefore means “may you comforted in your grief” or “may you comforted through your grief”. So in that sentences, thereʻs an acknowledgement that you are grieving, that itʻs okay to grieve, and may there your feelings be comfort through the time of your grief.

Political Ad from the 1900s

Political campaign ads in Hawaiian from the 1900s during the early Territorial period. Despite the language ban in schools during this time, many Hawaiian politicians continued to campaign in both Hawaiian and English. The politician featured prominently in this ad is John AwenaikalanikeahiokaluaoPele Carey Lane who served as a Territorial senator and later as mayor and sheriff of Honolulu. He was openly a royalist throughout his life and was a notable member of the Hawai’i Republican Party under Prince Kuhio.No automatic alt text available.

The Term "Makaʻāinana"

Image may contain: outdoor and nature

Makaʻāinana is the Hawaiian term often translated as “commoner”. But actually thatʻs a misnomer because in English a commoner is someone without rank or title and who were neither clergy nor noble. That is based on European social stratification going back to the Greeks and Romans. In Hawaiian, makaʻāinana is in fact a protected class and rank and unlike in European social stratifications, they were not tied by the land nor were they bound to serve a chief. A makaʻāinana could move freely and pledge allegiance to a chief of his/her choice. While in some ways, it did resemble a caste system in the sense one was born into it but in traditional caste systems, one does not have freedom of movement and freedom of allegiances. It can not be understood in European terms because of the lack of property ownership which was essential in class formation. The closest in the concepts of Hawaiian stratification I have found in terms of relate-ability and application are from Sāmoa, pre-colonial Visayan (in the Philippines), pre-colonial Merina society (in Madagascar), and pre-Islamic Indonesia .

The term makaʻāinana is quite beautiful in itʻs concept. The term “maka” means “eye”. “Mata” in most Austronesian languages from Indonesia to Rapa Nui still means “eye”. Maka in Hawaiian also means “face” and may have a relation with another term. In most Western Austronesian languages (i.e. Tagalog, Bahasa Indonesia, etc), muka or mukha means face and supposedly derives from the Sanskrit term मुख (mu.kha). 19th century New Zealand scholars proposed that maka and muka maybe related and this showed linguistic ties and/or on-going pre-colonial trade going on between Polynesians, SE Asians and India. In Hawaiian, maka means eye and face.

After maka, comes the term ʻāina. Everyone knows that ʻāina means land. But ʻāina in itself comes from the term ʻai refers to food and that which sustains you and you hold onto. ʻAi also figuratively means to rule because of the meaning of sustain and that which you hold on to. The the na in ʻāina is a normalizing suffix used to turn specific verbs into general nouns. Thus “to eat” or “to sustain” is changed from it’s verb form into “the persons/groups of people/things that which will sustain you and eat from”. The extra -na suffix in ʻāinana modifies the ʻāina even more to mean “the persons/ groups of people/ things that helps sustain the things that sustain you and eat from”. So the term makaʻāinana thus means the face or eyes of the people who sustain the land and everything on it that sustains you and society as a whole. They in essences help to sustain the entire society through their labors and skills. They are the real face of the lāhui. They are the face of the land. They are the eyes of the land. In my opinion, we need more people willing to sustain all that sustains us and we should honor our farmers, our fishers and also our our workers, our security guards, our sales clerks, our servers, our social workers and everyone else whose work enables us to sustain ourselves and keep us on the move for they are the face of the lāhui too. They help sustain our land and our society today.

On Being Maikaʻi

Most people know the term “maikaʻi” in the Hawaiian national language and they know the term as meaning “good” or “fine” in English. Maikaʻi, however, is a term that actually does not translate well in English because there is an entire concept behind the term. Maikaʻi is actually more of a state of being, specifically of being in good health, fine disposition, living up to one’s moral compass and of good appearance. In other words, the total package of “goodness”.
The Hawaiian dictionary gives some examples. He wahine maikaʻi loa ke nānā aku, a woman very good to look at. E ʻai ā pau maikaʻi ka iʻa, eat until the fish is completely finished. One might scratch one’s head to understand why maikaʻi in one context refers to a beautiful woman and in another context, to a fully eaten fish. This is because in Hawaiian, nani refers to outward or physical beauty whereas maikaʻi can compliment not just a woman’s looks but her disposition, her character and her manners. In the fish context, the underline thought is that the fish was completely eaten–as it should be. Kanaka Maoli of old in particular only cooked exactly enough for what was required and throwing away food was seen as not only not pono, but insulting to the fishermen and to the akua themselves. So it is right and proper that one should eat the food given to you completely.
For Thanksgiving, the Hawaiian translation is “Lā Hoʻomaikaʻi”. Hawaiians used the term maikaʻi rather than mahalo because as a verb, maikaʻi means to recognize, praise and congratulate the goodness of another person. Lā Hoʻomaikaʻi means more like “day to recognize goodness”.
Next time someone asks you “Pehea ‘oe?” and you are about to reply “Maikaʻi nō” (as is taught in Hawaiian 101), take a moment to take a deep breath and reflect upon one’s health, one’s character, and one’s total goodness

On the term "Haole".

Many people have grown up to believe that the term haole comes from: hā (breath) ʻole (without). To add confusion to that even some Native Hawaiians have accepted this and in the wikipedia entry also mentions this. But it is an incorrect and superficial rendering of the word. The word “haole” does not mean “without breath”. Any one who is familiar with the Hawaiian language, Hawaiian grammar and basic Austronesian linguistics knows that that word can not be broken apart in that way linguistically because ‘ole can not made ro create an elison (slurred with the preceding word). ‘Ole consists of four letters (‘ + o + l + e), begins with a consonant (‘) and the stress is on the ‘o. Pau’ole (end-less) for example is never pronounced as “Paule” by manaleo or native speakers of Hawaiian. Without getting heavy into piliʻōlelo (Hawaiian grammar), elisons in Hawaiian are only created by two vowels and mostly occurs when a preceding definite article (ka/ke/nā) is followed by a noun that begins with a or e.

In addition, traditional Hawaiian mele and mo’olelo never use that term in the context of being “breathless” nor as a marker of race, “mana” or religious practice. It actually had no racial connotations prior to the 1840s. The idea of race itself was not within the traditional Hawaiian way of thinking which emphasizes genealogical kinship particularly to the land. Nor did it have any negative connotations until the 1860s when Henry Whitney, founder of the Commercial Advertiser (today’s Honolulu Star Advertiser) complained about assertive Hawaiian newspapers like the “Ka Hoku Pakipika” because of their nationalistic content and his newspaper was beginning to lose subscribers. It is also interesting to note that “Ka Hoku Pakipika” preferred to not to use word “haole” and instead used the terms kōlea and malihini to describe specific actions that foreigners were doing towards Native Hawaiian culture and language. In fact, the first major complaint about “racism” was not from Native Hawaiians but were directed to Native Hawaiians and specifically against King Kalākaua himself by members of the “Missionary Party” because originally the king had wanted to take two Native Hawaiian cabinet members on his world tour in 1881. This allegation would be used against him throughout his reign because the king had a habit of trying to appoint cabinets composed of 50% Native Hawaiians and he tried to bring Chinese and Japanese into his Privy Council of State. Previously, cabinets were primarily composed of non-Native Hawaiian. Asians were almost absent from the government, though many were becoming naturalized by the 1870s. It was at that time that the term “haole” acquired its modern negative and racial connotations by Native Hawaiians and Asians due to politics of the time. Before that, historically and in Hawaiian mythology, it existed but had nothing to do with race but was merely a trait or a classification of peoples who one does not share an immediate (meaning eight generations or less) genealogical connection to or speaks an unfamiliar language. In other words, something (yes, it can be used to describe an object) or someone “different” than yourself, uncommon in Hawai’i, or originating outside of Hawai’i.  It was not a racial term.

The Kumulipo, for example, uses the word “haole” no less than seven times in describing peoples born of different traits. Kamapuaʻa is actually described as being haole because of his bright brown eyes and in some accounts, his ʻehu complexion and hair (reddish-brown). In other words, a physical trait. There are a number of name chants that use the term “haole” to describe either traits or peoples who speak language that could not be understood. For example, in the 600 line mele honoring Kuali’i, one of the greatest O’ahu kings and who unfortunately does not even have a school named after him, there is an account of Kuali’i’s voyage to strange lands:

“O Kahiki, ia wai Kahiki? Ia Ku!

(Kahiki, to whom belongs Kahiki? To Ku!)

O Kahiki, moku kai a loa, Kahiki,
(island far out in the ocean,)
Aina o Olopana i noho ai.
(Land where Olopana dwelt.)
Iloko ka moku, iwaho ka la.
(Inside is the island, outside is the sun.)
O ke aloalo ka—la, ka moku, ke hiki mai.
(In that land the sun hangs low in the sky.)
Ane ua ike oe? Ua ike.
(Perhaps you have seen it,)
Ua ike hoi au ia Kahiki.
(I have indeed seen Kahiki.)
He moku leo pahaohao wale Kahiki.
(An island with weird unearthly voices is Kahiki)
No Kahiki kanaka i pii a luna.
(Of Kahiki are the men who ascend up.)
A i ka iwi kuamoo o ka lani;
(To the backbone of the sky.)
A luna, keehi iho,
(Up there they tread,)
Nana iho ia lalo.
And look down below)
Aohe o Kahiki kanaka;
(No human beings in Kahiki.)
Hookahi o Kahiki kanaka, he Haole
(One kind of men in Kahiki, the haole)
Me ia la he akua, me au la he kanaka.
(He is [acts] like a god, I like a man)
He kanaka no.
(A man indeed.)

The translation is from Dr. Curtis Lyons as published in the Journal of the Polynesian Society in 1893 and as recorded by Judge Abraham Fornander. In this case the term haole is being used to describe people who do not speak the same language as you do. “Me ia la he akua, me au la he kanaka” also alludes to the fact that the people of that place do not seem to have the same kapu. In fact, that is another connotation of the word from other mele inoa—people who do not have the same cultural norms because they do not share the same language and if they do not share the same language, then there is a question of kinship. This idea linking language and kinship is deeply embedded within many Polynesian and Pacific cultures. It also should be noted that some imply that this particular section is talking about Kuali’i’s travels to Tahiti, the Marquesas, and the Americas because of the use of nautical terminology (iwi kuamoo o ka lani, etc) and the phrase “leo pahaohao”. The term “leo pahaohao” is also a phrase used in some Hawaiian newspaper accounts to describe the language Captain Cook and later the missionaries spoke or sounded like to Native Hawaiians of that era. In fact, in many of the mo’olelo and mele, speaking in a different language and the word haole are normally in the same context. In the Kamapua’a epic, the word is used to describe how different his eyes, hair color, and skin tone were from other people. Again, nothing to do with race, hā or mana. A more accurate translation of the term “haole” therefore might be “someone or something that is different or has different traits than one’s own”. 

I personally think that one of the reasons why the missionaries were called “haole” had nothing to do with the way they prayed (as the urban legend goes) or they being “breath less” but due to historical and mythological references associating the term “haole” with those who speak a foreign language or “leo pahaohao” as the mele inoa of Kuali’i does. Native Hawaiians did not make the term “haole” into negative racial slur. It was actually the descendants of American missionaries who first began to turn “haole” into a pejorative term because of politics. The concept of “race” as we know it today did not exist in the Hawaiian world view 200 years ago. The word “haole” is some ways is similar to the word “Kanaka” (which in Hawaiian meant “person”) which had no negative meanings but became in many contexts a pejorative term used by newcomers to describe Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders in general. Unfortunately, due to the historical events (i.e. 1893), misinformation, and the way people used both “haole” and “kanaka”, both terms became like niho ʻawa (poisonous fangs). Today, Native Hawaiians have reclaimed “Kanaka” in the context of “Kanaka Maoli” and “kanaka” no longer carries the stigma that it did in the 19th and early 20th centuries. Perhaps its also time to re-evaluate the term “haole” in its proper context and should not be used in negatively. Racism should have no place in anyone’s heart and is a poison. At the same time, one should understand context and history why for example certain terms became used in the way that they continue to be used and why such divisions were created in the first place.